RAMPS 1.4 Controller
This list is Pololu trillion rupiah , or ramps short. It was designed as a low-cost small package RepRap needs to accommodate the entire electronics . Oblique interfaces with the powerful Arduino MEGA platform Arduino Mega , and have plenty of room for expansion. On the stepper drives and a Arduino MEGA shield extruder control electronics for easy maintenance , replacement parts , upgrades and expansion capabilities , including plug-in modular design . In addition, some Arduino expansion boards can be added to the system , as long as the main ramp plate is saved to the top of the stack .
The board is mainly based on Adrian 's Pololu_Electronics and work Tonok 's . The proposed anti- Vick copper etching method . Vick is also inspired by the work of EasyDrivers . Adrian'sPololu_Electronics circuit design mainly based on Joaz RepRapSource.com provide initial pin definitions and many design improvements. Too much inspiration , advice, and from Prusajr, Kliment, Maxbots, Rick, and many other ideas RepRap community.
Things not to do (applies to most boards): source: http://forums.reprap.org/read.php?219,314083
- Unplug/plug stepper motors while RAMPS is powered on (instant current draw can blow drivers, despite current limiters).
- Unplug/plug stepper drivers while RAMPS is powered on (instant current draw can blow drivers, despite current limiters).
- Unplug/plug hot end/heated bed while RAMPS is powered on (can lead to arcing in connectors if the output gets enabled somehow).
- Short out any coil on the stepper motors (have seen this blow A4988's, despite the fact they are supposed to be protected against this sort of thing).
Things to note (somewhat RAMPS specific, but also applicable to other boards):
- Beware when installing stepper drivers in a socket that you get them the right way around, and that the board is in the right place (eg: 1-off pin errors can kill a stepper driver and possibly your Arduino).
- The diodes on RAMPS for reverse-polarity protection are woefully inadequate. It's possible if you connect the PSU backwards, even only once, you'll blow all your stepper drivers and/or your Arduino.
- The PTC fuses on RAMPS are in many cases useless (>20 secs to actually trip in over-current conditions), so you really want to put fuses in your input cabling (between the PSU and the RAMPS board). This is especially important if you're using >12V, particularly with the heated bed. The PTC for the heated bed is only rated to 16V.
- I would recommend heatsinks on all stepper driver chips and a small fan always pointing at the RAMPS board (active cooling). While the heatsinks don't do a HUGE amount extra, it's just enough overhead that can in some cases make a difference, especially if the board is in a warm environment.
- Be very careful when measuring voltages and the like on the board while power is connected. It's easy to slip (especially if the RAMPS board isn't mounted on something) and short something out. Also make sure you're on the correct range first - Current ranges are effectively a short circuit between the probes, and Resistance provides a voltage out of the probes. This can cause all sorts of problems if you select the wrong range and put the probes across something.
- Check the resistance of your steppers, to make sure that they match the specs (eg: check that the coil isn't significantly lower resistance or short circuit) before plugging them into a board the first time. It's easy for them to get damaged in transit or even missed by the QA process the manufacturer uses.
- By powered on, I mean ALL POWER. This means the PSU should not be connected or plugged in, and that any lights on the PSU, RAMPS board or Arduino should be off for more than 3 seconds. This includes unplugging the USB, as some parts of the board are powered over USB. In short: Unplug all sources of power before doing ANYTHING with motors or wiring. While it may seem a little over the top, you'll never encounter a problem by following it.
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